Preventing falls at home

A fall that may only cause bruises or scrapes in a young person can significantly impact an older person’s life. In addition, fractures due to falls are likely to lead to bedridden, and women prone to osteoporosis have an increased risk of fractures. Preventing falls at home is critical and it requires your cautions.

Falls at home often lead to becoming bedridden.

Elderly people and households with elderly people must be careful about “falling.” You may take tripping and falling at home too lightly as a common accident, but as you get older, your physical function declines, and your muscles weaken. Compared to when they were young, they are less able to move their bodies, and it is not uncommon for them to become more prone to stumble over only small steps or to become bedridden after a fall. Even a minor fall can lead to the need for nursing care.

Fractures can lead to bedridden or requiring nursing care…

Injuries and bruises aren’t the only consequences of a fall. As you get older, the risk of fractures from falls increases. Above all, attention is necessary for “femoral neck fracture,” which is likely to occur due to falls.
A femoral neck fracture happens near the hip joint (groin). Even a minor fall, such as missing a step on the stairs at home, can result in a broken bone. Surgery and long periods of bed rest may be sometimes necessary, and the muscles may become weak and bedridden.
As a result, the muscles of the legs and lower back become weak, and even after the fracture has healed, walking becomes difficult, and in many cases, it requires nursing care.

Note that osteoporosis increases the risk of fractures.

Muscle weakness is one of the reasons why older adults are more likely to fall.
The prevalence of osteoporosis, which reduces the strength of bones, increases with age, and falls make fractures more likely. Osteoporosis is more common in women than men, and its prevalence is about three times higher than in men. Falls are likely to occur in familiar places such as living rooms and bedrooms, so it is necessary to take adequate measures to mitigate the impact of osteoporosis.

Beauty and Bones

Bone health issues by aging

If you go out less due to self-restraint and spend less time in the sun and walking, you will be worried about losing bone mass. If such a life is prolonged, there is concern about health problems due to bone loss.
You will also need to know the critical relationship of beauty and bones.

Middle-aged and older women are more likely to develop osteoporosis due to a rapid decrease in bone density due to the effects of decreased female hormones. And even the younger generation tends to have less bone savings due to lifestyle changes.

The relation between the beauty and bones

Bones not only support the body but are also closely related to the functions of internal organs, such as the flexibility of blood vessels, the ability to lower blood sugar, and the function of the kidneys. In terms of beauty matter, the decrease of facial bone volume causes “sagging and wrinkles” and affects the “appearance impression.” Keeping your bones healthy is good for your body and appearance.

Eat well-balanced meals three times a day.

Calcium intake is vital for bone health, but it’s not the only one. Various nutrients are also required, such as vitamin D, which promotes calcium absorption, and vitamin K, which helps calcium uptake into bones. It is crucial to take in enough energy and nutrients.

Skipping meals increases your chances of getting the energy and nutrients you need.

balanced diet
What is a balanced diet
Staple food (rice, bread, noodles),
Side dishes (vegetables, mushrooms, potatoes, seaweed dishes),
Main dish (meat, fish, egg, soybean dish)
A complete meal.

In addition, if you try not to bias the food in your daily diet as much as possible, you can ingest various nutrients in each food.
In particular, to increase calcium intake, it is possible to incorporate green and yellow vegetables such as spinach, seaweed such as hijiki, and soy products such as tofu.

If it’s not easy to take soy foods in your daily diet, you can try supplements like Effisoy® by Juveriente®.

Healthy diet will lead to your healthy bones, and eventually your beauty.

What is Umami? The key to reduce your calories

Reduce your calories by utilizing umami

Do you know the term “Umami“? It is from a Japanese term, meaning the taste element to add or deepen tastefulness in foods. If you know it from brand names like “Umami burger”, you may not have a healthy impression about it. Apart from such a commercial utilization, though, it is actually a key to reduce your calories. It adds thickness and tastefulness to your dishes without oil, sugar nor salt.

Umami is an independent basic taste

Umami is one of the five basic tastes.
Umami is one of the five basic tastes.

We have traditionally known 4 basic tastes, sweetness, saltiness, bitterness and sourness.

Japanese people have traditionally used “dashi”, some food extracts to add or amplify tastefulness in their cooking. The essence of dashi is Umami and it is actually the 5th basic element.

How Japanese people use “dashi”?

3 major dashi (umami extract) bases in Japan are konbu seaweed, dried bonito shavings and dried shiitake mushroom. The usage is simple. For example; They put some dried bonito shavings in to boiled water for a minute or two. Then they take out the residue after the extraction. They cook miso soup with this hot water. Miso, fermented soy paste, has nice taste and flavor on it’s own. But the dashi will deepen and organize the whole taste of the miso soup.

How scientists found it as actual substances and an independent basic taste?

Japanese scientists found umami as actual substances in the major dashi bases in the early 20th century. Glutamic acid from konbu seaweed, isonic acid from dried bonito shavings and gualynic acid from konbu seaweed.

They considered it as an independent taste element beside other basic ones like saltiness, sweetness, etc. But Western scholars didn’t believe it. According to their thought then, it was merely the tastefulness by the complex of other basic taste elements.

In 2002, they found the receptor of umami on human tong. It is a common recognition now that umami is the fifth basic taste element after saltiness, sweetness, sourness and bitterness.

How can you reduce your calories with umami?

They found it from the Japanese “dashi” culture. But Western foods also has their own umami bases, like fond or broth.

It may be hard for you to try new tastes from a foreign dietary culture. It will be easy for you to utilize vegetable broth and reduce sugar, salt and oil.

Japanese dietary habits are natural appetite suppressants

When you input “natural appetite suppressants” in a search engine, you will be seeking for some special supplements or food materials. It will be mostly for your weight management.

But it’s difficult to cook a delicious dish based on bad food materials. In like manner, you can’t establish your good health only with such special agents if without healthy dietary habits.

Japanese foods are famously healthy and support the good health of Japanese people.

But not only the foods, they traditionally have healthy dietary habits and tips. The following tips work as natural appetite suppressants and you can take them into your life easily. Try them from today!

  1. Hara-Hachibunme
    This Japanese term means that you stop eating when your appetite is satisfied by 80%. Stop eating when your appetite is eased before you feel full and wait for a while. It will take about 20 minutes before the taken food satisfies your satiety center. If you still need more food after that, take a little more. If you habitually always take food up to the maximum, you will learn that you can be satisfied with less food. As an extra benefit of such a new habit, you can be more active without suffering from the glut.

  2. Take more water as a beverage or soup to fill your stomach with less food. It will provide you the same effect as Hara-Hachibunme without the intensional patience. Is water a natural appetite suppressant? Yes!

  3. Take various dishes on small plates, and take them alternately, little by little. It Take various dishes on small plates, and take them alternately, little by little. It will satisfy your satiety center with less food by taking time, dietary fiber, and water in the middle. It will also help your health by taking balanced nutrients from the various foods.

  4. Take foods containing much dietary fiber at first. It will slow your digestion and moderate appetite and blood sugar spike. Vegetables, mushrooms, beans, etc., will be good.

  5. Use less cooking oil and sugar. Dashi will help your dish taste better and satisfy the eaters with less cooking oil and sugar. Dashi is an “Umami” extract. Umami is already an English term for elements of taste like bitterness, sweetness, or sourness, which makes you feel tasty.

All these dietary habits are easy for you to take into your life and work as natural appetite suppressants. I like to stress here that you should do them gradually to the extent you can try without stress. The most important thing is to make them your natural habit instead of chasing the benefits in the short term.

Take Best Fermented Foods In An Easy Way

Skin healing with fermented foods

I watched a TV program in Japan for health, where a researcher of fermented food advised a woman to take a bit of fermented food every meal for one week. She had a problem with her bowel movement, and it led to her skin problems. After the week of the trial, she got a significant improvement. She was excited about the excellent condition of her skin.
The fermented food she tried in that trial were yogurt, wed kimchi, miso soup, natto, fermented rice, onion, etc.

Umami is global, flavor is local

Maybe you can try. They are some of the best options. But there is a problem. Dr. Fushiki of the University of Kyoto, a famous scholar for fermented food, says, “Umami (savoriness) is global, but the flavor is local.”
Fermentation generates rich umami in food in most cases, but it usually accompanies a specific flavor, which often smells and tastes odd to people from other dietary cultures.

For example, as an ultimate example, most Japanese love natto (fermented soy with bacillus natto), but most people other than the Japanese will think of is “rotten” by its gooey outlooking and probably stinky smell.
Even such Japanese people can’t eat the “surstromming” of Sweden. (It’s a fermented canned fish called “the world’s most stinking canned food.”)

Those 2 are ultimate examples, but any fermented food presents the same challenge more or less to people from different dietary cultures.

Start with your familiar flavor

But, it will be better that you keep a healthy diet with less challenge than trying something too special and can’t continue. It will be good for you to take your familiar fermented food every day, even by a little.

Yogurt is already popular in the USA.
You may not see wine as a fermented food, but it’s a fermented grape extract. Wine has rich polyphenols as the following;
(1) From the skin: Anthocyanin, Resveratrol, Tannin
(2) From the pulp: Anthocyanin
(3) From the seed: proanthocyanin, tannin, quercetin, catechin
Some people may be happy to find that wine makes you healthy as well as feeling good!
But, you can have too much of a good thing. Be careful to drink it just for your health, and never drink too much.

Clinical Study of the Natural Treatment for Osteoporosis with β-Cryptoxanthin

Happy Voices from the natural bone therapy seekers

Juveriente® Bone Strength Complex has helped many people for their bone health as a natural treatment for osteoporosis. Many of them sent us happy reviews.

The following is one of them;

“I am at my fourth month of trial. I suffered a fracture of the femur last year, had a hip replacement and am still monitored with x-rays every few months. There appears to be new bone growth according to my doctor. I am happy and will continue using it.”

What makes it unique?

LEARN MORE BSC
Find more product reviews in Amazon!

What makes this product unique is β-Cryptoxanthin. It’s a kind of carotenoid richly contained in Satsuma Mandarin Orange. Satsuma mandarin orange is one of the most popular table fruits in Japan.  This is never be a medicine but only a natural treatment for osteoporosis with a natural fruit. It’s only a fruits extract. But clinical reports back its solid support for your bone health.

Clinical Report

Osteoporosis Clinical Study
Click the image for the whole report.

This report shows the way how β-Cryptoxanthin works as a natural treatment for osteoporosis. It activates the osteoblast and restrains the osteoclast’s work. Then it boosts your bone metabolism. This is the system how these functions happen and researchers found it through in-vitro studies. They also conducted human studies. They saw the actual improvement of human’s bone metabolism depending on the intake of this vitamin. 

This is only a natural food and helps your bone.

You may not have heard of β-Cryptoxanthin and may be wary about it. But, as a matter of fact, it is only one kind of carotenoid. The actually used ingredient in the supplement is only an extract of Satsuma mandarin orange. It is rich in β-Cryptoxanthin. Satsuma mandarin orange is called “Mikan” in Japanese. Mikan is one of the most popular fruits in Japan. Most Japanese people eat a lot of Mikan in winter.

People in the region to plant a lot of Mikan eat even larger volume of it. A Japanese agriculture institute found the apparent correlation between the blood β-Cryptoxanthin concentration and the onset risk of osteoporosis there by a cohort study to track 700 women for 4 years there.

Supplements As Oriental Medicine’s Dietary Therapy: That’s Juveriente®

Juveriente® Have Received A Lot Of Great Reviews since 2017

We, Juveriente®, have received various feedbacks for our 2 products, Effisoy® and Bone Strength Complex. We are happy to see in many reviews that our effort is helping so many women.

Effisoy®;

“Oh wow. Thank you for this product. I was suffering. Suffering! After a couple of weeks most of my hot flashes and night sweats are gone.”

“I have severe hot flashes for the past 7 years. After watching Dr Melissa YouTube video, I’ve been taking this product plus other supplements (Milk Thistle, Iodoral) and it completely took my hot flashes away. (Nothing else worked for me.). I’ve been using this product for over a year. I ran out of it and the hot flashes returned. I recommend watching Dr Melissa YouTube video it was a life changer for me.”

Bone Strength Complex;

“I had been diagnosed with osteopenia in my hips several years ago and had been taking calcium/magnesium supplements with little effect. I have now been taking Bone Strength Complex for 4 months and the results from my recent scan show perfectly normal bones, no more osteopenia!”

“Great product. Had osteopenia. Improvement when I had my bone density test.”

We also receive some negative feedbacks claiming that a few weeks or even a few days dosage doesn’t help them. We always explain to such customers by saying they need more patients with continual taking, and the duration before they see certain effects will vary depending on individuals.

The Concept of Oriental Medicine

The above explanation may sound obsolete to you. You might have already heard the same from a lot of supplement brands.

But such notices, “It may take time” and “The duration before you feel certain effects will vary depending on individuals”  are never define the supplement as weaker versions of medicines for us. They are rather the key concepts of the basic of Juveriente’s supplements, Oriental Medicine.

The standard, or modern medicine, which we call Western medicine hereafter, specifies the deceased part and remove it or fix it directly. Drugs for it are often made of a single chemical.

But the idea of Oriental medicine is totally different. It will pursue the root cause of decease in the disorder or imbalance of your daily life and health. It may be in your imbalanced diet, a disorder of your discharging like sweat or bowel movement, or a disorder of circulation and metabolism.

Then it will aim the recovery of such imbalances sometimes with a little help of herbal medicines or acupuncture and moxibustion, and mainly through daily diet.

Such indirect treatment will not remove the problem immediately. “It may take time” and “The duration before you feel certain effects will vary depending on individuals”

But surely safe, and it addresses the root cause of the problem and provides you sustainable help.

(Of course, there are a lot of cases that such mild oriental medicine is not enough. We will discuss it in our next post.)

Oriental Doctor
The old grinding of Chinese herbal medicine of traditional Chinese medicine

Japanese Diet and Oriental Medicine

“Medicine” meant Chinese traditional medicine in Japan in most of its long history (about 1,500 years)  and it was simply called “Medicine”.

Japanese first modern government, which replaced the last and long lasted Samurai government in the late 19 century, adopted modern medicine imported from the Western countries as the official medicine.

Since then, Japanese people call modern Medicine Western Medicine, or only Medicine, and their former standard medicine Oriental medicine or Kanpo.

Regardless of this historical major change of their public policy, Oriental medicine is deeply rooted in their culture and daily life. Even doctors of Western medicine sometimes recommend Oriental medicine treatments to their patients.

Its idea is also rooted in the Japanese diet and makes it healthy. It never is their principle idea that a specific food provides them a particular health effect. Each food has various and general health effects, and good health needs multiple and diverse foods.

But there are surely various foods which help your health in some specific problems. We, Juveriente focused on some of them, which have back data and great performances in Japan, made them into supplements, and introduced them to the world.

Thus, the concept of Juveriente supplements is an extension of Oriental medicine. “It may take time” and “The duration before you feel certain effects will vary depending on individuals” “But surely safe, and it addresses the root cause of the problem and provides you sustainable help.”

 

 

 

 

The Art of Japanese Sake 2 (Take a look inside the sake master’s world.)

Why we say “The Art of Sake”?

Sake brewing passes through complicated processes. The sake master (Toji) needs to take care of each point in a delicate manner. It requires high expertise and continuous carefulness all through the processes.

I try to explain to you the key points of such a complicated brewing.  It may be interesting but maybe somehow lengthy for you. You don’t need to read it through if you don’t have time or are not interested in such details.

The summary and the most important thing to know is that such complication enables Toji to make up the premium sake’s delicate taste and flavor without leaning on a fortune called “great vintage,” but only on his expertise and technique. 

On the other hand, it also means sake sometimes falls into a terrible quality if the brewer neglects such carefulness to save operation costs. 

If you are new to Japanese sake and enter the world of beautiful sake’s art, we commend you to start with brands already known to have premium quality like SOTO or Dassai. 

Lack of temperature management in international logistics often damages even sakes, which are considered great in Japan, their origin country. Still, these two brands are brought to you even in Western countries under their careful temperature control. 

It will be a tragedy if you try a terrible sake at first and walk away from the potential valuable experience without knowing the real beauty of sake. 

Anyway, if you have a little time and be interested in the venture of the sake world, continue to the following. 

The Basics of Sake Brewing

By the way, what is so complicated, and how a Toji (sake master) manages it with his expertise and techniques?

The points we explained in our previous post are as the followings.

  1. Yeast ( microorganism) derive enzymes and take energy by resolving sugar with them. Yeast discharges alcohol (ethanol) and carbon dioxide. This is the basic process of alcohol fermentation.

  2. In the case of Japanese Sake; They plant Koji mold on steamed rice. It is called “Koji,” and Koji’s enzymes will resolve the rice starch into sugar. In the same tank where this reaction happens, sake yeast will resolve this sugar and make the alcohol fermentation.

The actual works and phenomenon to reflect the above principle in the actual brewing is the following.

  1. To input the raw materials for the saccharification fermentation (fermentation to turn starches into sugars) (We call the following all together “ingredient set” hereafter.)
    1. WATER
    2. STEAMED RICE
    3. KOJI (STEAMED RICE COVERED WITH KOJI MOLD)

  2. The ingredient set turns the rice starch into sugar.

    The sake yeast causes alcohol fermentation when it eats this sugar and derives alcohol (ethanol).

 

Japanese sake brewing

What are the challenges?

The subjects to handle in this procedure are live microorganisms. The reactions vary every time. Also, the two different lively responses will weave a far complicated and unforeseeable flow. Even the right set of brewing conditions will never guarantee the right product. Toji, the sake master, observe the liquid surface and add delicate adjustments in need based on his expertise and technique.

The things you should know to understand the sake brewing’s critical points

  1. The alcohol fermentation does not happen in a bio clean room. (Probably technically possible, but impractical in terms of the cost.) It means the liquid where the alcohol fermentation is ongoing always contact outside air, where numerous kinds of unwanted bacterias including wild yeast exist. The contamination can happen anytime.

  2. They nurture only the target microorganism, sake yeast, with the following methods.
    1. To make the environment where only sake-yeast can survive or keep its activity over other bacterias. Sake-yeast is endurable under high acidity and low temperature, where most of the others stop their activity and multiplication. (Once the sake yeast becomes predominant, it keeps its surrounding highly acidic on its own by deriving lactic acid and carbon dioxide.)

       

    2. To keep sake-yeast predominant. Besides its keeping the acidity, the predominant sake yeast will eat up the feed, sugar, and leave no room for survival for the other bacterias.

       

The two critical control points to brew good sake

  1. As explained above, it is necessary to eliminate the room for unwanted miscellaneous bacterias and wild yeast for safety and to avoid unpleasant taste and flavor.

  2. Keeping the low temperature is not important only to prevent unwanted bacterias, but it keeps the alcohol fermentation active to the longest extent. A too rapid increase in alcohol will stop the yeast’s activity. The greater extent of the alcohol fermentation will resolve the rice starch as much as possible and make the taste of sake clean. It is also known that we can generate the premium sake flavor only in low-temperature fermentation.

What they actually do in their operations and managements

To implement the above conditions, the main thing that Toji, the sake master, does is to balance the saccharification (starch-to-sugar fermentation) and the alcohol fermentation in their speeds.

Multiple Factors To Complicate The Temperature Control

The following multiple factors always fluctuate, respectively, and change and require the best expertise of Toji, the brewing master.

  1. The initial temperature of the liquid in the tank

  2. The temperatures of the input steamed rice, water, and koji.

  3. Heat generation by the fermentation’s progress

  4. The alcohol fermentation will generate and increase the heat with its progression. It will make the temperature distribution uneven and hard to measure the temperature condition only with a thermometer.


Toji uses thermometers but makes his judgments at every critical point, eventually based on the traditional method. He finds what he should do by observing the liquid surface with full of his five senses.

Three Steps Input

As one of the principal methods, they input the ingredient set little by three times. It is called “three steps input.” When they input a portion of the ingredient set, it will dilute the yeast concentration and the tank’s acidity. Too much input will make them too low and give unwanted bacterias the room for multiplication.

Narrow Target of the saccharification speed / never too fast and never too slow.

They need to secure the right rice saccharification speed to keep up the yeast’s activity by providing enough sugar, the feed, on-demand. On the other hand, too much sugar by too fast saccharification will accelerate the yeast’s alcohol fermentation too much. It will make the alcohol percentage of the yeast’s surroundings too high and eventually prevent its own activity halfway. Otherwise, higher sugar concentration will also prevent the yeast’s activity.  

Saccharification paces

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The followings are the major factors to affect the saccharification speed.

  1. The way Koji mold is rooted in steamed rice. The saccharification power is strong when it’s rooted deep inside the rice.

  2. Softness/stiffness of steamed rice (= moisture content). Both smooth melting and not-too-fast are required.

  3. Higher temperatures will encourage faster saccharification.

Such temperature control will directly affect the saccharification and the alcohol fermentation, as explained earlier. 

Saccharification Speed Elements

Summery

Many other critical points affect the above matters in other processes like rice grinding, rice steaming, etc. They also require fine expertise in detail. We don’t write about them here, but you already know how sake brewing needs the expertise of sake masters and careful control. 

In such a way, beautiful sake is made beautiful. Try a premium sake with such careful brewing and, don’t forget, shipped with careful temperature control. 

P.S. How they make the yeast predominant at the start?

I explained that they need to keep up the high concentration of sake yeast in the fermentation tank. By the way, who do they start it? Do they purchase a liquid full of cultivated yeast? No. It was impossible in pre-modern while sake brewing procedure was already established. 

The answer is that they do a similar fermentation in a tiny tank with a small volume before going to a big tank. This process’s main purpose is not alcohol fermentation (though it arises as a result) but the cultivation of the sake yeast. It’s much easier to control the environment in a small tank. 

The sake yeast is not predominant here at the start. So they raise the acidity by lactic acid secreted by lactobacillus. The high acidity will prevent unwanted bacterias from multiplying, and the protected yeast increases. The sake yeast will generate alcohol through its multiplying (= alcohol fermentation). The heightened alcohol percentage will kill the lactobacillus, and eventually, only the sake yeast remains predominant. 

This starting liquid is called “Shubo,” which means sake’s mother liquor. They carry the mother liquor into the main fermentation tank and add the ingredient set by the “3 steps input,” as explained above. 

The Art of Japanese Sake / How its delicate taste and flavor are brewed

Japanese sake, one of the fastest-growing alcohol categories

One of my favorite Japanese sake brands, announced its partnership with one of the most famous female tennis players,  Naomi Osaka, recently an icon of her generation. According to their news release, Japanese sake has been one of the fastest-growing alcohol categories in North America over the last decade and be expected to expand by a further 51% by 2022. 

We, Juveriente, know something about Japanese sake as the brand from Japan, which is dealing with fermented food material (AglyMax® for Effisoy®). We would like to make some simple explanations about the art of Japanese sake, the complicated craftsmanship nurtured through Japanese history as the following.

How to make alcoholic beverages?

How we can make alcoholic beverages?

Like you take energy from foods through the decomposition in your guts, a microorganism called “yeast” decomposes sugars and take energy from there. Of course, yeast doesn’t have intestines. It secretes enzymes and decomposes sugars outside of its body. This procedure derives alcohol and dioxide as the byproducts.

(C)2020 J-FIT Co. Ltd.

Except for some minor cases of the industrial application, alcohol is not something we synthesize chemically. But it is a discharge of the bio action (it is called “metabolism”) of microorganisms called yeast. It is called “fermentation” that microorganisms decompose their “feed” and turn it into another substance due to their metabolism. (Just for your reference, it is a phenomenon called “rotting” when the outcome is harmful against humans. The line parting fermentation and rotting is whether the outcome is useful for humans or not. )

Simple Fermentation (Wine)

The simplest way to brew alcohol is hat you feed sugars to yeast.

Grapes are the richest in sugar (glucose) among major fruits and a lot of yeasts exist on the skin of grapes. If you crush a grape and leave it, it will naturally turn into an alcoholic beverage. It is wine.

We found a relic of this simplest brewing method of an alcoholic beverage in a 6,200 years old Greek remain.

The human has improved it and added various fine-tunings in the long history, but yet the simple basic routine is the same even nowadays. We call it “Simple Fermentation” because we can make liquor with a single fermentation. (Though it’s quite simple, we don’t recommend you to brew a homemade wine. Unwanted bacteria may thrive over yeasts and rot the liquid if without the right expertise. )

Multiple Sequential Fermentation (Beer)

When you keep chewing starchy foods like bread, it will gradually turn sweet. It’s because the enzymes in your saliva will decompose the starch and turn it into sugar, glucose. Sprouted grains have similar enzymes and they turn their starch inside into sugar (maltose). We utilize this sugar and brew beer.

  1. To turn the starch contained in wheat into sugar and make a wheat juice, called wort, rich in sugar (maltose).
  2. To ferment the sugar in the wort and turn it into alcohol

The above “1” is also a kind of fermentation. This method combines these two fermentations in turn and we call it “Multiple Sequential Fermentation”.

According to the latest study by a Japanese beer brewer, ancient Egyptians of 5,000 years ago already did it industrially.

(c) 2020 J-FIT Co.Ltd.

Multiple Parallel Fermentation (Japanese Sake)

Now we talk about the most complicated brewing method. Japanese sake.

We cause the two fermentations in turn, from starch to sugar, and from sugar to alcohol, in the brewing of beer. But we cause those two different bio reactions simultaneously in one tank when we brew Japanese sake. We call it “Multiple Parallel Fermentation.”

We use stuff similar to malt (sprouted wheat). It is a molded rice, with a particular mold for sake brewing, sorted and purely cultured through the long history of Japanese sake. The mold is called “Koji mold.” It secretes enzymes to decompose starch in the rice. The rice with Koji mold is called “Koji.”

(c) 2020 J-FIT Co.Ltd.

The most significant benefit of the multiple parallel fermentation is that we can keep the yeast’s feed (sugar) at the appropriate level, in line with the yeast’s activity. Yeast’s alcohol fermentation can’t last when its meal (sugar) is short. But if we provide too much sugar at once and make the sugar content too high, the microorganism, yeast, can’t survive it.

Microbial Transition Control Established in the Premodern History

In the multiple parallel fermentation, we put the rice and Koji (fuels of the fermentation from starch to sugar) into the tank by multiple (usually three) times separately. The starch-to-sugar fermentation happens at an appropriate pace. It will enable the ideal speed and duration of the alcohol fermentation, which is happening in the same tank. For example, a long term low-temperature fermentation will contribute to the flowery flavor and clear taste of premium sake.

We say here that we control the yeast’s activity. But, it is not an easy matter like the operation of a machine. Fermentation is not an act of a production machine, but an activity of a creature. Setting the same one fermentation condition set will never guarantee the same one result. So even a single fermentation requires close and delicate care to attain a target quality of the outcome. When 2 of such unforeseeable phenomena are combined, the management will get more difficult exponentially.

Japanese breweries established most of the above methods by the 13th century and, their craftsmanship has made it more and more sophisticated through their long history since then. There was no modern measuring equipment and, nobody knew about microorganisms, but the sake craftsmen, called “TOJI”, watched and managed the ultimately complicated microorganism activities by full of their senses and created beautiful tastes and flavors. It is already an art, rather than merely an operation.

Nowadays they have all the modern kinds of equipment and good knowledge of microorganisms, but the best sake quality still requires TOJI’s expertise and delicate care in detail.

A traditional sake brewery house / photo by RnDmS, iStock by Getty Images

More Modern Technologies In The Premodern, Developed With Japanese Sake

Besides the above mentioned microbial transition control, there are two other modern technologies from their premodern history, which also show the profoundness of Japanese sake.

They developed the pasteurization already in the 16th century, 300 years prior to Pasteur. Pasteurization was named after Pasteur!!) It prevailed in the Japanese sake industry since then.

They don’t take mother Koji mold to plant on the rice to make Koji from the atmosphere. The brewers purchase the purely cultured mother mold. It sounds natural in the modern age. But when did they start to buy the cultured mold? There were already suppliers to culture the mother Koji mold in the 13th century, the time of crusaders! It would be the oldest bio-business in the world.

If you like to know further details about Japnese sake, proceed to the next post, “Take a look inside the sake master’s world.”

P.S. About Distilled Beverages (Whisky, Vodka, and many other high alcohol liquors)

You may think there are many other alcoholic beverages like whisky or vodka, even beside wine, beer, and Japanese sake mentioned above.

The above three are generally classified as “Fermented Liquor” because we drink them basically with no further processing after the above fermentations.

Others, high alcohol liquors, like whisky or vodka, are the kinds that we add further processing to either of the fermentation methods explained above to achieve higher alcohol concentration. We classify them as “Distilled Liquor” vs. “Fermented Liquor,” and I didn’t list it beside the above three.

I explain you the operation method of the distilled liquor just simply here.

The boiling point of the water is 100°C (212°F) and alcohol (ethanol) is 78.3°C (172.94°F). Generally, they boil a fermented liquor roughly at 70°C (158°F) to 80°C (176°F). If they take the steam and cool it down to a liquid, they can take a higher concentration of the alcohol.

They repeat it a few times to get further high alcohol for some kinds of liquors. But more distillation will impair the original taste and flavor. Thus they age the distilled liquor to add taste, flavor, and color afterward, for some kind. For example, whisky is aged and add up the flavor and the color from the barrel.

A distiller. The steam with high alcohol concentration goes up through the upper tube and be liquidated.

Osteoporosis In Men / Harder impact once got

Risk of osteoporosis in men

Women have more tendency to get osteoporosis than men, as most people know. But it doesn’t mean that the men’s osteoporosis doesn’t exist. According to “Percentage of Adults Aged 65 and Over With Osteoporosis or Low Bone Mass at the Femur Neck or Lumbar Spine: United States, 2005-2010“, 16.2 % of American adults aged 65 and over had osteoporosis at the lumbar spine or femur neck (Table 1Figure 1). While women had it by 24.8%, men also did by 5.6%. 

Men also get osteoporosis as their age gets higher.

Men have bigger and thicker skeleton than women and have more bone mass when they are young. They don’t experience a steep decline in their hormones like women’s menopause. These factors moderate the men’s osteoporosis risk. But, such a chance gets higher also on men as they age higher.

Osteoporosis in men happens after their age of 60, generally, and its ratio becomes about half of women. The bone mass of men aged around 80 is only about 70% of their youth and many of them can get osteoporosis.

Men also have factors to facilitate osteoporosis risk besides the factors to moderate it as the above. They have more tendency to have diabetes or hypertension. More men smoke and drink than women. These are related to the onset of osteoporosis.

Men’s osteoporosis can bring them more lifetime health risks.

Both men and women become easy to fall due to the waned muscle and sense of balance. Weakened bone by osteoporosis is easy to be broken even by a little falling. Men have bigger bodies, and their moves are strong; they tend to hit their bodies harder on the ground or floor and it may break their bones or cause a head injury. So, we can tell you that the osteoporosis in men has higher risk of such injury.

Thus men tend to shut themselves in their house after such injuries worry the same trouble from happening again. As a result, they will not move their bodies enough, and their muscle strength and muscle strength will decline. Eventually, it leads to the deterioration of their body functions and mental depression. In the worst case, they may fall into the condition to need care.

Laying on a hospital bed and having nothing to do

Which bones are broken? What happens as a result?

The bone parts often to be broken for older men are the same as women, vertebral body (backbones), proximal portions of femur, base of upper arms, and wrists.

Among these parts, the bone-breaking at the base of the femur often brings down the patients into the condition needing care, and you will need to be very careful.

The spinal cords pass through your backbones. If the backbones are broken, it can cause health disorders beyond the broken bones. The broken part may press the nerve to cause disturbance of gait or urination disorder.

The possibility of bone-breaking increases after the age of 70, even in men, and it can lead to further severe health problems. Thus men should take care of bone health as well as women.

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